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Berat

Berat (Albanian: Berat or Berati) is a town located in south-central Albania at 40°42′N 19°57′E. It has a population of around 45,500 people (2003 est). It is the capital of both the District of Berat and the larger County of Berat.

Berat Berat lies on the right bank of the river Osum, a short distance from the point where it is joined by the Molisht river. It is remarkable Ottoman town, with a wealth of beautiful buildings of the highest architectural and historical interest. The pine forests above the city, on the slopes of the towering Tomori mountains, provide a backdrop of appropriate grandeur. The Osumi river has cut a 915-metre deep gorge through the limestone rock on the west side of the valley to form a precipitous natural fortress, around which the town was built on several river terraces.

According to legend, the Tomorr mountain was originally a giant, who fought with another giant, called Shpirag over a young woman. They killed each other and the girl drowned in her tears, which then became the Osum river.

Mount Shpirag, named after the second giant, is on the left bank of the gorge, above the district of Gorica. Berati is known to Albanians as 'The City of a Thousand Windows' a similar epithet to that sometimes applied to Gjirokastra, The City of Two Thousand Steps, and has a mixture of Orthodox, Muslim and Vlach inhabitants. It was proclaimed a 'Museum City' by the dictator Enver Hoxha in June 1961, and is a UNESCO World Heritage City.

Berat History
The town is thought to be one of the oldest in Albania, with a settlement having existed there since at least the 6th century BC, when it was a fortress-settlement of the Illyrian Dasaretes tribe on the old border between Illyria and Epirus. Known as Antipatrea, it was captured by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. The town became part of the unstable frontier of the Byzantine Empire following the fall of the Roman Empire and, along with much of the rest of the Balkan peninsula, it suffered from repeated invasions by Slavs and other "barbarian" tribes. During the Byzantine period, it was known as Pulcheriopolis.

The Bulgarians under Simeon I captured the town in the 9th century but were eventually driven out in the 11th century. During the 13th century, it fell to Michael I Ducas, the ruler of the Despotate of Epirus. It passed to the Serbs in 1345, who renamed it Beligrad or "Beograd" ("white city"), from which the present name is derived. The Ottoman Empire conquered it in 1450 and retained it until 1912. However, it did not retain direct control for the whole of this period – in 1809, the tyrannical Ali Pasha, who was himself of Albanian origins, seized the town and refortified it. In 1867, Berat became a sanjak in Janina (Yanya) vilayet.

Berat During the period of Ottoman rule, Berat fell into severe decline. By the end of the 16th century it had only 710 houses. It began to recover in the 17th century and became a major craft centre specialising in wood carving. During the 19th century, Berat played an important part in the Albanian national revival. It became a major base of support for the League of Prizren, the late 19th century Albanian nationalist alliance. In November 1944, the communist-controlled Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council of Albania declared in Berat that it was the provisional government of the country, signalling the beginning of the long dictatorship of Enver Hoxha.

Attractions
The Fortress, is built on a rocky hill on the left bank of the river Osum and is accessible only from the south. After being burned down by the Romans in 200 B.C. the walls were strengthened in the fifth century under Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II, and were rebuilt during the 6th century under the Emperor Justinian and again in the 13th century under the Despot of Epirus, Michael Angelus Comnenus, cousin of the Byzantine Emperor. The main entrance, on the north side, is defended by a fortified courtyard and there are three smaller entrances. The fortress of Berat in its present state, even though considerably damaged, remains a magnificent sight. The surface that it encompasses made it possible to house a considerable portion of the cities inhabitants. The buildings inside the fortress were built during the 13th century and because of their characteristic architecture are preserved as cultural monuments. The population of the fortress was Christian, and it had about 20 churches (most built during the 13th century) and only one mosque, for the use of the Turkish garrison, (of which there survives only a few ruins and the base of the minaret). The churches of the fortress were damaged through years and only some have remained.

Orthodox Church The Church of St. Mary of Vllaherna dating from the 13th century, has 16th century mural paintings by Nikolla, son of the Albania's most famous medieval painter, Onufri. In a small tree - planted square, on a hillside inside the walls of the fortress, stands the fourteenth century Church of the Holy Trinity. It is built in the form of a Greek cross and has Byzantine murals. Outside the ramparts is the Church of St. Michael (Shen Mehill), Built in the thirteenth century. This church is reached by a steep but perfectly safe path. Near the entrance, after a guardhouse, is the little Church of St. Theodore (Shen Todher), which have wall paintings by Onufri himself. The most interesting is the cathedral of St. Nicholas, which has been well restored and is now a museum dedicated to Onufri. Onufri was the greatest of the 16th century painters in Albania. Not only was he a master of the techniques of fresco and icons, but he was the first to introduce a new colour in painting, pink, which the French called "Onufri's Red". In addition, Onufri introduced a certain realism and a degree of individuality in facial expression.

The first inscription recording Onufri's name was found in 1951, in the Shelqan church. The Kastoria church has a date 23 July 1547 and a reference to Onufri's origin : Une jam Onufri, dhe vij nga qyteti i shkelqyer i Beratit (I am Onufri, and come from the town of Berat). Onufri's style in painting was inherited by his son, Nikolla (Nicholas), though not so successful as his father. In Onufri's museum are to be found works of Onufri, his son, Nikolla and other painters'. There are also numbers of icons and some fine examples of religious silversmith's work (sacred vessels, icon casings, covers of Gospel books, etc). Berat Gospels, which date from the forth century, are copies (the originals are preserved in the National Archives in Tirana). The church itself has a magnificent iconostasis of carved wood, with two very fine icons of Christ and the Virgin Mary. The bishop's throne and the pulpit are also of considerable quality. Near the street running down from the fortress is the Bachelors' Mosque (Xhami e Beqareve), built in 1827. This has a handsome portico and an interesting external decoration of flowers, plants, houses, etc. The 'Bachelors' were the young shop-assistants (in practice generally unmarried), whom the merchants in Berat used as their own private militia. The Sultan's Mosque (Xhamia e Mbretit), the oldest in the town built in the reign of Bayazid II (1481 - 1512), is notable for its fine ceiling.

Leaden Mosque The Leaden Mosque (Xhamia e Plumbit), built in 1555 and so called from the covering of its cupola. This mosque is the centre of the town. The Tekke of the Helveti (Teqe e Helvetive), of 1790, with a handsome porch and a carved and gilded ceiling. Near of tekke was the grave of Shabbatai Zvi, a Turkish jew living in Berat who in the 1660 declared himself to be the Messiah and began a movement that led to hundreds of thousands of impoverished European Jews trying to follow him in an attempted emigration to the Holy Land. The Ottoman authorities put him on trial for disrupting the Imperial Peace and imprisoned for a time in Costantinopole. He was forced to convert to Islam and exiled back to Albania . After his death his tomb was taken over as a Bektashi shrine and remained that until 1967

Sights in Berat
The town is still renowned for its historic architecture and scenic beauty and is known as the "Town of a Thousand Windows", due to the many large windows of the old decorated houses overlooking the town. It is unclear whether it really means "Thousand" (një mijë) or "One over Another" (një mbi një) windows. Indeed, the quarter is built in a very steep place and windows seem to be one over another. Same views can be admired also in Gjrokastër (Albania) and Catanzaro (Italy) where once an Albanian minority lived. The Citadel overlooks the river and the modern city as well as the old Christian quarter across the river. It is a well preserved area containing narrow streets, Turkish houses and Orthodox churches.

Berat Modern Berat consists of three parts divided by the Ossum River: Goritsa ("little mountain" in Old Slavonic, Mangalem and Kalaja, the latter being a residential quarter within the old Byzantine citadel that overlooks the town. The town also has a 15th century mosque and a number of churches of the Albanian Orthodox Church, whose autocephaly was proclaimed there in 1922. Several of the churches house works by the renowned 16th century painter Onufri.

Berati is one of the most ancient and important centres of Albania with special values and an uniterrupted continuity of life. It is known as an Ilirian inhabited center, after that as an arberesh one and nowadays as an albanian one .

The castle and its fortified walls are interrelated just like a mosaic where various stages of buildings such as " Kala ", " Mangalem ", " Gorice " wich are settled on hills units of the toun make up an impressive example of our genius creative people.

Cult buildings and important monuments are well-known for a prominent architecture. Their foundations belong to paleochristian buildings. Monuments that preserve a complete view are of XIV th centuries . Within these monuments there are some masterpieces of our distinguished painters just like : Onufri, Nikolla , Qipriot , Cetir and many other nameless persons, whereas the institution fund of culturalmonuments

in Berat preserve abaut 400 religions objects and icons which in the greatest part of them as the result of the missing of financial sources are still unrestored.

Folklorik Group Mosques and small mosques are brilliant examples in their rising skill of architecture execution, but in particular the iterior part of ceilings and stained glass windows too. Institute affilation of cultural monuments in Berat is an institution that, restores and propogates all these inheritable values.

Museums such as Onufri, Ethnographic and Historic preserve and devote prior importance to this treasury placing the bases of a cultural tourism.

Being proposed as a world property, Berati is going to be sooner under protection.There is very developed home tourism in Berat where foreingner’s preference is the characteristic native kitchen. The distance of some main sea’beaches is about 80 km away. Taking in consideration the conditions of our country its difficult for a further preservation of monuments and art’s works so Berati needs a tecnichal assistence of developed countries.

Things to See
Near the river is the Palace of Culture ,a theatre worth checking for events. Beyond this is the Bachelor´s Mosque (1827),now a folk-art museum. Continue on towards the old stone bridge(1780) and you´ll see the 14th-century Church of St Michael high up on the hillside,below the citadel.

In Mangalem, behind the Bachelor´s Mosque is Muzeu i Luftes ,which is worth seeing as much for its old Berati house as for its exhibits on the partisan struggle during WW-Two.

Beyond the bank on the stone road leading up towards the citadel is the Museu Etnografik in another fine old building. After entering the citadel through its massive gate , continue straight ahead on the main street and you will see the sign to the Muzeu Onufri .

The Museu Onufri and the Orthodox Cathedral of Our Lady(1797)are both within the monastery walls.The wooden iconostasis(1850) and pulpit in the cathedral are splendid.